The term "cancer" in the scientific plan means a certain group of malignant tumors. A malignant tumor is a tumor whose properties most often (in contrast to the properties of a benign tumor) make it extremely dangerous for the life of the body, which gave reason to call it “malignant”. A malignant tumor consists of malignant cells. Malignant neoplasm is a disease characterized by the appearance of uncontrollably dividing cells capable of invasion into adjacent tissues and metastasis to distant organs. The disease is associated with impaired cell proliferation and differentiation due to genetic disorders.
The development of drugs and methods for treating malignant tumors is an important and still not completely solved scientific problem. An oncologist specializes in cancer treatment. Depending on the location of the malignant tumor, the stage and characteristics of the patient, oncologists of various specialized specialties, for example, gynecologist, oncologist, or chemotherapist, will be involved in the work. The effectiveness of the treatment of any “cancerous” disease is higher in the early stages, when the tumor is located within the same organ. In the later stages, most often the disease cannot be completely cured, and the goals of treatment are focused on prolonging the patient's life and improving its quality. The fundamental difference between the early and late stages is the spread of the primary tumor (which appeared initially) and the presence of distant metastases (groups of tumor cells outside the primary focus and lymph nodes). For example, in colon cancer, metastases can appear in the liver and lungs.