Urolithiasis is a common urological disease, manifested by the formation of stones in various parts of the urinary system, most often in the kidneys and bladder. Often there is a tendency to severe recurrent course of urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is diagnosed by clinical symptoms, results of an X-ray examination, CT, ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder. The fundamental principles of the treatment of urolithiasis are: conservative stone-dissolving therapy with citrate mixtures, and if it is not effective - remote lithotripsy or surgical removal of calculi.

Currently, the causes and mechanism of development of urolithiasis have not yet been fully studied. Modern urology has many theories that explain the individual stages of stone formation, but so far it has not been possible to combine these theories and fill in the missing gaps in a single picture of the development of urolithiasis. There are three groups of predisposing factors that increase the risk of urolithiasis.

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